The ddmin algorithm proceeds by executing the following steps to ﬁnd a 1-minimal test case:
1. Reduce to subset: Split the current conﬁguration into n partitions. Test each partition for failure. If a partition does induce the failure, then treat it as the current conﬁguration and resume at Step 1.
2. Reduce to complement: Test the complement of each partition. If any induces the failure then treat it as the current conﬁguration and resume at Step 1.
3. Increase granularity: Try splitting the current conﬁguration into smaller partitions, 2n if possible, where n is the current number of partitions. Resume at Step 1 with the smaller partitions. If the conﬁguration cannot be broken down into smaller partitions, the current conﬁguration is 1-minimal and the algorithm terminates.